Pterional Craniotomy from the Columbia Neurosurgery Online Curriculum
Posterior abdominal wall, after removal of the peritoneum, showing kidneys, suprarenal capsules, and great vessels. (Hepatic veins labeled at center top.)
Heparin is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant. (It can also be used to form an inner anticoagulant surface on various experimental and medical devices such as test tubes and renal dialysis machines.)
Heparin is a naturally occurring anticoagulant produced by basophils and mast cells. Heparin acts as an anticoagulant, preventing the formation of clots and extension of existing clots within the blood. While heparin does not break down clots that have already formed (unlike tissue plasminogen activator), it allows the body’s natural clot lysis mechanisms to work normally to break down clots that have formed.
Heparin is generally used for anticoagulation for the following conditions:
- Acute coronary syndrome (e.g., NSTEMI)
- Atrial fibrillation
- Deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism
- Cardiopulmonary bypass for heart surgery
- ECMO circuit for extracorporeal life support
- Indwelling central or peripheral venous catheters
Many individuals who have been diagnosed with coronary atherosclerosis take medications to help hinder further progression of the disease. The class of drugs known as statins, which effectively reduce elevated cholesterol levels, have been especially useful in the battle against the condition and other forms of heart disease.
Researchers at UCLA have developed this organic solar cell, which promises a cheaper and more effective way to harness the sun’s power. The new cells could serve as a power-generating layer on windows and smartphones without obstructing a person’s ability to see through the surface.
Nice gloves … But, who cares ..?